Access Management

What is Identity Management?

Identity and Access Management (IAM) is a framework of policies and technologies that ensures the right people have appropriate access to technology resources. IAM systems are designed to provide a means of identifying users in a system (e.g., a country, a network, or an enterprise) and controlling their access to resources within that system by associating user rights and restrictions with the established identity.

IAM is not just about controlling access. It’s about ensuring that access is granted swiftly, efficiently, and securely. When implemented correctly, IAM systems provide a seamless user experience, enhance security, streamline administrative processes, and ensure compliance with regulatory mandates.

This is part of an extensive series of guides about access management.

In this article:

Why Is IAM Important? 

Enhancing Security by Enforcing Authorized Access

As businesses become more digital, they also become more vulnerable to cyber threats. IAM plays a crucial role in protecting against these threats. By ensuring that only authorized users have access to systems and data, IAM helps to prevent unauthorized access and potential data breaches. IAM utilizes technologies such as multi-factor authentication and biometric verification to ensure that the person accessing the system is who they claim to be.

Improving User Experience by Easing Access

In the modern business environment, users expect seamless access to systems and data. They don’t want to remember multiple passwords or go through complicated procedures to access the information they need.

IAM systems can provide single sign-on (SSO) solutions that allow users to log in once and have access to all the systems and applications they need. This not only improves the user experience but also enhances security by reducing the risk of weak or reused passwords.

Automating Administrative Processes

Managing user identities and access rights can be a complex and time-consuming task. It involves creating user profiles, assigning access rights, monitoring user activities, and deactivating user profiles when they are no longer needed.

IAM systems can automate these administrative processes, making them more efficient and less prone to errors. This not only saves time and resources but also ensures that access rights are managed consistently across the organization.

Supporting Compliance Efforts

Many industries, such as healthcare and finance, are subject to strict regulatory mandates regarding data security and privacy. Non-compliance can result in hefty fines and damage to the organization’s reputation.

IAM systems can help organizations comply with these regulatory mandates by providing a transparent and auditable record of who has access to what, when, and why. This makes it easier for organizations to demonstrate compliance during audits and inspections.

The IAM Lifecycle 

The IAM is a structured process that starts when users initially receive access to resources, and ends when access is eventually revoked. Here are the main stages involved:


Provisioning is the process of creating and managing user identities and access rights. This involves creating user profiles, assigning access rights based on the user’s role in the organization, and ensuring that these rights are updated as the user’s role changes.

IAM systems can automate the provisioning process, ensuring that access rights are granted quickly and accurately. They can also integrate with HR systems to automatically update access rights when a user’s role changes.


Authentication is the process of verifying the user’s identity. Modern IAM systems use multi-factor authentication, which is done through a combination of something the user knows (e.g., a password), something the user has (e.g., a security token), and something the user has (e.g., a fingerprint). Combining two or more authentication factors ensures the person accessing the system is who they claim to be, and is a strong defense against social engineering attacks.


Authorization is the process of verifying that the authenticated user has the appropriate access rights. This involves checking the user’s access rights against the resources they are trying to access.

IAM systems can enforce fine-grained access control policies, ensuring that users have access only to the resources they need to perform their job. This helps to minimize the risk of unauthorized access, insider threats, and resulting data breaches.

Audits and Compliance

IAM makes it possible to monitor user activities and ensure compliance with regulatory mandates. This includes logging and analyzing user activities, detecting and responding to suspicious activities, and providing auditable records of who has access to what, when, and why.

IAM systems can provide comprehensive audit and compliance tools, making it easier for organizations to detect and respond to security incidents and demonstrate compliance during audits and inspections.


De-provisioning is the process of revoking user identities and access rights when they are no longer needed. This is critical to prevent unauthorized access.

IAM systems can automate the de-provisioning process, ensuring that access rights are revoked promptly and accurately. They can also integrate with HR systems to automatically de-provision access rights when a user leaves the organization.

Challenges of IAM Implementation 

Although IAM offers compelling benefits, it can be complex to implement IAM in a large organization. Some of the key challenges include:

Managing Growing Numbers of User Identities

As organizations expand and evolve, so does the number of user identities that require management. With every new employee, partner, or customer, comes an additional identity that needs to be created, managed, and eventually deactivated. This growing volume of identities can quickly become overwhelming, creating a significant administrative burden and increasing the risk of errors.

Moreover, each user identity represents a potential point of vulnerability. If not managed effectively, inactive or redundant accounts can provide an easy entry point for cybercriminals. Therefore, it’s not just about managing the sheer number of identities, but also ensuring that each one is securely managed throughout its lifecycle.

Keeping up with Evolving Security Threats

Cybercriminals are constantly devising new methods of attack, and vulnerabilities can emerge from any number of directions. 

For example, social engineering attacks such as phishing or spear-phishing can be particularly difficult to defend against, as they exploit human weaknesses rather than technical ones. Similarly, insider threats, whether malicious or accidental, can pose a significant risk to an organization’s IAM strategy. 

IAM systems must provide innovative security measures to address the latest threat vectors, and teams must activate them and learn to effectively use them.

Balancing User Convenience and Security

Another key challenge in IAM is striking the right balance between user convenience and security. On the one hand, strict security measures can help to minimize the risk of unauthorized access and data breaches. On the other hand, if these measures are too cumbersome or intrusive, they can impede user productivity and satisfaction.

For example, requiring users to remember complex, unique passwords for each system or application they use can lead to frustration and potentially risky behaviors, such as writing down passwords or using the same password across multiple systems. Similarly, overly strict access controls can prevent users from accessing the resources they need to do their jobs effectively.

Integrating IAM Solutions with Legacy Systems

Finally, integrating IAM solutions with legacy systems can pose a significant challenge. Many organizations are still reliant on older, monolithic systems that were not designed with modern IAM principles in mind. These systems can be difficult to integrate with newer IAM technologies and may lack the flexibility to support dynamic, policy-based access controls.

In addition, legacy systems often have their own, separate identity repositories, leading to a proliferation of identity silos across the organization. This not only increases the complexity of IAM but also the risk of inconsistent or outdated identity data.

Learn more in our detailed guide to identity management system 

IAM in the Cloud 

Despite these challenges, the advent of cloud-based IAM solutions offers new opportunities for organizations to deploy and make use of IAM technology. Cloud-based IAM (also known as IAM-as-a-Service or IDaaS), can provide a scalable and cost-effective solution for managing and securing user identities.

One of the key advantages of cloud-based IAM is that it can help to simplify the management of user identities. Rather than having to manage separate identity repositories for each system or application, organizations can centralize their identity data in the cloud. This not only reduces the administrative burden but also improves the consistency and accuracy of identity data.

In addition, cloud-based IAM can provide advanced security features such as multi-factor authentication (MFA), risk-based authentication, and anomaly detection, all delivered as a service with no need to deploy software on-premises.

Key IAM Technologies and Tools 

Here are some of the primary building blocks of an IAM solution. Depending on your use case, you might use some or all of these technologies.

Directory Services and Identity Providers (IdP)

Directory services, such as Microsoft Active Directory, provide a central repository for storing and managing user identity data. They play a crucial role in authenticating users and authorizing their access to resources.

In addition to storing user identities, directory services can also store information about resources, such as servers, printers, and network devices, and the relationships between them. This information can be used to enforce access control policies and to provide a comprehensive view of the organization’s IT environment.

In recent years, directory services have evolved into Identity Providers (IdPs), systems that authenticate and authorize users by providing and managing digital identities. Many businesses use third-party IdPs, many of them cloud-based, which integrate with numerous applications, both cloud-based and on-premises. Modern IdPs support modern authentication capabilities such as SSO and MFA (see below).

Single Sign-On (SSO) Solutions

Single sign-on (SSO) allows users to log in once and gain access to multiple systems or applications, without having to re-enter their credentials. This not only improves user convenience but also reduces the risk of password-related security issues. There are various types of SSO solutions, including:

  • Web-based SSO: Enables access to multiple web applications with a one-time login, primarily used for cloud-based or externally hosted services.
  • Enterprise SSO: Facilitates internal access to various on-premises systems using a single set of credentials, improving convenience for internal users.
  • Federated SSO: Extends single sign-on capabilities to external networks and domains, promoting secure and efficient inter-organizational collaboration.

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a security measure that requires users to provide more than one form of verification to prove their identity. This could involve something they know (like a password), something they have (like a security token), and something they are (like a fingerprint).

By requiring multiple forms of verification, MFA provides an added layer of security, making it more difficult for unauthorized users to gain access to resources. At the same time, advancements in MFA technology mean that it can be implemented in a way that is convenient for users, helping to maintain the balance between security and usability.

Privileged Access Management (PAM)

Privileged access management (PAM) helps control and monitor privileged users, who have administrative access to critical systems and data. PAM tools provide a secure way to authorize and monitor all privileged user activities. They also manage passwords for privileged accounts, automatically rotating and encrypting them to prevent unauthorized access.

Implementing PAM is important for sensitive and mission critical applications. It reduces the risk of data breaches caused by compromised privileged credentials, ensures compliance with regulatory requirements, and provides complete visibility into privileged activities.

Identity Governance and Administration (IGA)

Identity governance and administration (IGA) tools are responsible for managing digital identities, access rights, and compliance policies across the organization. They automate and streamline IAM processes, reducing manual effort and error.

IGA tools can automatically create, modify, and deactivate user accounts based on predefined policies. They help enforce the principle of least privilege (PoLP), ensuring users have only the access they need to perform their jobs. Also, they provide comprehensive reports and audits, making it easier to demonstrate compliance with regulations.

Consumer Identity and Access Management (CIAM)

Consumer identity and access management (CIAM) is a subfield of IAM that focuses on managing and securing customer identities. It combines traditional IAM practices with customer relationship management (CRM) to deliver a secure and seamless user experience.

CIAM tools help businesses securely capture and manage customer identity and profile data, and control customer access to applications and services. They support social login, multi-factor authentication, and consent management, providing a secure and personalized customer experience.

Implementing a CIAM solution can improve customer engagement, increase conversion rates, and enhance security. It also helps businesses comply with privacy regulations like GDPR and CCPA.

Learn more in our detailed guide to customer identity management 

Entitlement Management Software

Entitlement management software helps organizations manage user permissions and entitlements to ensure that users have the appropriate access to resources.

This software helps companies define, enforce, and review access policies, ensuring that only authorized individuals have access to sensitive data. It also provides robust auditing capabilities, allowing organizations to monitor access and detect any anomalies or unauthorized access.

The implementation of entitlement management software should be done in conjunction with a broader IAM strategy. This ensures that all aspects of identity and access management are covered, from the initial authentication process to the ongoing management of user permissions and entitlements.

Learn more in our detailed guide to permission based access control (coming soon)

Best Practices for Implementing IAM Solutions 

Assess Needs and Capabilities

Before implementing an IAM solution, it’s vital to conduct a thorough assessment of your organization’s needs and capabilities. This involves understanding your existing infrastructure, applications, and data, as well as your business processes, security risks, and compliance requirements.

The assessment should identify who needs access to what, when, and why. It should also uncover any gaps in your current access controls and identity management practices. The insights gained from this assessment will guide your IAM strategy and help you choose the right IAM technologies and tools.

Centralized Identity Management

One of the key best practices in IAM is centralized identity management. This means managing all user identities and access rights from a single, centralized system.

Centralized identity management simplifies administration and improves security. It provides a single source of truth for user identities, reducing inconsistencies and errors. It also enables consistent enforcement of access policies across the organization.

Implementing centralized identity management requires careful planning and execution. It involves integrating all your applications and systems with the central IAM system, and migrating existing user accounts and access rights to the new system.

Implement Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)

Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) is a method of managing access rights based on users’ roles in the organization. In RBAC, access rights are assigned to roles, not individual users. Users are then assigned roles, and they inherit the access rights of their roles.

Implementing RBAC simplifies access management and improves security. It makes it easier to manage and track access rights, especially in large organizations with many users and resources. It also helps enforce the principle of least privilege, reducing the risk of unauthorized access.

Regularly Review and Update Access Rights

Access rights should be regularly reviewed and updated to match changes in users’ roles, responsibilities, and employment status. This process should be automated as much as possible, using IAM tools that support access certification and recertification.

Regular access reviews help identify and correct excessive or inappropriate access rights. They also detect orphaned accounts, which belong to users who have left the organization but whose accounts have not been deactivated.

Transition to Passwordless Authentication

Transitioning to passwordless authentication can address the numerous vulnerabilities associated with password use, such as weak password creation, password reuse, and susceptibility to phishing attacks. Modern IAM systems support passwordless authentication methods, including biometrics, mobile device authentication, one time passwords (OTP), and SSO solutions. 

Transitioning to these or similar authentication methods and stopping the use of passwords altogether can significantly improve security while also improving the user experience and reducing administrative overheads.

Educate and Train Employees

Finally, it’s important to educate and train employees about IAM. They should understand the importance of IAM, the risks of poor IAM practices, and their role in maintaining good IAM.

Training should cover topics like secure password practices, phishing threats, and the importance of reporting suspicious activities. It should also explain the company’s IAM policies and procedures, and the consequences of non-compliance.

Regular, ongoing training can help create a culture of security in the organization. It can also reduce the risk of insider threats, which are often caused by careless or uninformed employees.

Learn more in our detailed guide to identity management solution (coming soon)

CIAM for SaaS with Frontegg

Fronetgg offered a self-served CIAM platform with all the features your customers need, all in a customer-facing UI. Frontegg’s customer-facing login box enables users to login simply & securely. 
Users can login via a simple login, or via Enterprise SSO, powered by an extra security layer of Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA), and advanced account breach detection controls.

It’s also multi-tenant by design. Frontegg can adjust to any organizational structure of your customer – from the most basic to the most complex enterprise demands. All data is segregated according to the specific tenant in-use.

See Additional Guides on Key Access Management Topics

Together with our content partners, we have authored in-depth guides on several other topics that can also be useful as you explore the world of access management.

Attribute Based Access Control

Authored by Frontegg


Authored by Frontegg

Network Topology Mapping

Authored by Faddom


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